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The situation is so bad that if any university converts its matriculation ceremony to a convocation ceremony heart attack age discount 20mg vasodilan, with the view of awarding degree certificates to the matriculating students blood pressure for 6 year old 20 mg vasodilan otc, many if not all will happily rise to collect the certificate and thereafter organise thanksgiving service and party blood pressure medication good for kidneys order cheap vasodilan online. After all economists say that blood pressure chart download cheap vasodilan 20mg on line,nobody will want to work except motivated with reward or threatened with punishment. However there is no short cut to success as the only sure way to success is hard work. Another factor that students identified as a cause of examination malpractice is that there are many distractions in the university that are non- academic. The observation of the respondents is that majority of students spend more time on activities that are non-academic such as: politics, socials, religious activities, travelling. These activities take them away from lectures and most times from continuous assessments then when they find out that the semester has run out, they begin to look for how to cut corners. Then the fraud or malpractice may eventually be seen as a way of academic exercise. Students who would have ordinarily passed an examination feel disappointed and lose confidence when less intelligent ones perform better than them through cheating, thus leading to loss of confidence in themselves and in the examination and the system at large. Examinations malpractice may lure some students into other areas of misconducts such as prostitutions and or armed robbery, female students who lack money to sort or pay for scores may take prostitution while male may as well take stealing or armed robbery in a bid to make money to pay for scores (Onyechere, 2004; Adewale, 2014 & Uzochukwu, 2015) Other general effects of examinations malpractice can be summarized as follows: the products of examinations malpractice are square pegs in round holes. They lack the required knowledge and experience to carry out their assignment and professional duties effectively. The products of examination malpractice always end up with unfulfilled dreams in their chosen career. Examinations malpractice is a negative orientation for future leaders who may end up being fraudulent and corrupt in their various offices. Anyone who engages in examinations malpractice is building on a false foundation which can lead to serious professional errors. Everyone continues to decry this cankerworm in the Nigerian education system and all penalties put in place to stop it remains almost ineffective if not totally ineffective. The causes could be attributed to societal value system, the behaviour of candidates, parents and the education system. The consequences could be catastrophic to both education system and the society as it would turn out the society certificated illiterates. The respondents identified different forms of examination malpractices including but not limited to; impersonation, disorderliness, cheating, giraffing, conspiracy and aiding, forging of results, machinery, microchips, smuggling of question papers out of examination venues, smuggling answer scripts into examination venues, sorting and rewriting. They traced the factors responsible for examination malpractice to , and blamed students as not being adequately prepared for examination, other stakeholders in the educational system as tolerating and supporting it and the society at large for being responsible for the continuous rise in examination malpractice. Students preferred light penalties such as cancellation of examination and rustication for academic session as against stiffer punishment like imprisonment and expulsion from the university as contained in the laws of the land. Change in value system, the situation where people place so much value on certificate does not augur well for our academics as it encourages examination malpractice. Sound educational policy should be put in place with de-emphasis on the supremacy of certificates over skills and professional competence. Students who engage in examination malpractice have been found to be academically weak. It is therefore recommended that they should be improvement in the delivery of instruction especially at the foundation i. The universities should guide against indiscriminate admission of students so as not to overstretch the available facilities. The Federal and State Government should continue to establish more universities to give opportunities to more candidates seeking admission in order not to over stretch facilities in existing universities. The integrity of the university lecturer is important in curbing examination malpractice. The invigilators should be very vigilant in the supervision of examination and should be fair to all. Religious and community leaders should be used to intervene on parents who insist on their children getting the best result without genuine efforts for it. The rigidity and timing of examinations should be reviewed in such a way that when a student complains genuinely that he cannot write an examination another time suitable should be organized for him, may be, in form of summer exams, this will eliminate the phobia of failure which may result in impersonation and other form of malpractices. July 13, 2009 National Universities Commission Benchmark Minimum Academic Standards 2011

Forest practices blood pressure journal template buy generic vasodilan online, relying on monocrop plantations and evenaged stands of exotic species blood pressure by age buy discount vasodilan on-line, have not been conducive to maintaining biological diversity blood pressure medication lightheadedness generic 20 mg vasodilan otc. Some countries blood pressure 150100 order vasodilan amex, particularly those with extensive forest cover (Finland, France, Germany and Sweden), consider their forests in an integrated context with landscapes and biodiversity. Degraded forests are found in the Russian Federation around industrial centres in the Urals, the Kola Peninsula and Siberia, with more than 500 000 ha damaged in the Siberian region of Norilsk alone (Mnatsikanian 1992). Chernobyl affected about 1 million ha of forests in the Russian Federation as well as large areas in Belarus and Ukraine. In the mid-1990s, large areas of forests were lost in the Russian Federation from causes other than logging. All forests in the Russian Federation are state owned and are divided into three groups for management purposes (see box). Forest clearance for agricultural land, terracing and the creation of fruit orchards has had adverse consequences on the environment and biodiversity in southeastern Europe, especially Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia. The severe energy crisis in the mid-1990s in Armenia and Georgia also caused illegal logging on a large scale for home heating and cooking (Radvadnyi and Beroutchachvili 1999). The affected forests include oak and other tree stands which are characterized by high biological diversity in comparison with other types of forests. Fire is one of the great enemies of Mediterranean wooded areas due to the climatic conditions (dry air and strong winds) and the combustibility of the plant cover; it is estimated that on average 500 000 ha are burned each year. Striving for sustainable forest management Sustainable forestry was practised in Central Europe in the 19th century and the culture of sustainable use has survived until today in some parts of the region, particularly in Slovenia. In many parts of Western and Central Europe, however, monocultures, especially those consisting of fast-growing commercially valuable coniferous species, have displaced indigenous broadleaved forest species; they are unable to support high biodiversity and are more vulnerable to acidification. All countries in the region are making efforts to decrease wood production from natural forests and enhance biological diversity and other environmental services and protection functions by managing them in a more sustainable manner. Another solution to the problem of deforestation is the imposition of fines and other economic instruments on illegal as well as legal cutting. In Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Poland revenue for forest protection and reforestation activities is generated through timber extraction charges or fines. In addition to national actions, European countries are parties to international collaborative efforts which directly or indirectly address forest issues. However, two of its requirements - incorporation in national legislation and the submission of national lists of Natura 2000 candidate sites - have not been fulfilled by all Member States. The second (Helsinki 1993) agreed on a common definition of sustainable forest management (see box). The third (Lisbon 1998) put special emphasis on the socio-economic aspects of sustainable forest management. National Report on the State of the Environment in the Russian Federation in 1995. Strategic Environmental Analysis of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia. These include supplying the wood industry with inputs for domestic consumption and export, providing local communities with essential non-wood forest products and providing forest-dwelling indigenous communities with opportunities to continue their traditional livelihoods. They also provide environmental goods and services, acting as natural shields against disasters, affording watershed protection, biodiversity preservation and prevention of soil erosion, and serving as a sink for carbon dioxide. The rate of deforestation is one of highest in the world at an annual average of 0. Causes of deforestation and forest degradation the major problems are deforestation and degradation of the forest ecosystem, including fragmentation and biodiversity loss. Forest fires, always a natural force in forest ecosystems, have also become a major problem (see box). Commercial farmers have cleared large areas for soybean exports in Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay, for coffee in Brazil, and for bananas in Central America, Colombia, Ecuador and the Caribbean (ContrerasHermosilla 2000). Small-scale farmers also cause deforestation by employing slash-and-burn practices to extend their agricultural lands into forests. In Amazonia and Central America, local communities own significant proportions of forests while in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay virtually all forests are privately owned.

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While these two conceptualizations belaboured the public sphere in the case of the ancients and the private in the case of liberalism blood pressure medications with the least side effects order vasodilan cheap, the social realm normal blood pressure chart uk buy discount vasodilan 20mg online, a creation of modernity obstructed by these two political philosophies entail an admixture along with interpenetration of the two realms and their constitutive principles blood pressure zetia purchase vasodilan 20mg online. She conceives of the polis as the organization of the people as it arises out of speaking in addition to acting together arrhythmia means purchase 20 mg vasodilan fast delivery. Action or rather an interaction is constitutive of the public sphere, 20 however, it is supposedly only power that can keep it in existence. Furthermore, Arendt does, in fact, link power more contiguously to political speech than to act in its primordial rhetorical sense. According to her, the connotation of the polis as isonomia, to be precise, equality about the law is that of no rule in the sense of an absence of differentiation into rulers and ruled within the citizen body. Thus, the public sphere establishes a model of interaction tinctured by noncoercive discourse among citizens who initially hold and freely exchange a genuine plurality of opinions. Underpinned by her assortment between action and work, praxis and poiesis respectively, Arendt at times go along with what she takes to be the Greek exclusion of legislation, the decision by voting and even the founding of cities from the properly public, political activities. Realists assume that self-sufficiency is an empirical categorization of the State, that the State resolves for itself how it will deal with both its inner and outer glitches. Whether in practice or principle, self-government is taken to denote the absolute authority of the state within its borders and the absence of any higher authority outside those borders. Alan James delves into this subject matter by accentuating that, sovereignty may be perceived as a moat, cutting the State off from constitutional subordination to other States, thus, expressing the fact of its own constitutional independence. Instead of treating selfsufficiency as an unambiguous quality of statehood or a definitive benchmark of international society, constructivists argue that autonomy is a variable, social and essentially instituted regime. Constructivists insist that our reading of international politics will be handicapped until we recognize that sovereignty is a functional category whose empirical contents are not fixed but evolve in a mode reflecting the active practical consensus among coreflective statesmen. The mode of the sense of authority is negotiated out of interactions within intersubjectively identifiable communities and the variety of patterns in which practices construct, reproduce, reconstruct and deconstruct both state and sovereignty. By employing the idea of constitutional structures to conceptualize the normative foundations of global community, we have not only embedded the principle of sovereignty into a broader complex of constitutive meta values, but there has also been an assigning of it a secondary, dependent value. Somewhat, it is to acknowledge what sovereignty is as an organizing principle, precisely, no more or no less. It is a standard that specifies how power and authority will be systematized, a model that mandates territorially demarcated and autonomous centers of political authority. There is nothing in the principle of sovereignty, though, that specifies why power and supremacy should be structured in such a fashion; the only technique to rationalize this form of political organization is by appealing to a set of higher-order values that sovereign States are thought to realize. Moreover, the legitimacy of the sovereign state rests on values other than the principle of sovereignty. There has been the utilization of the concept of the moral purpose of the State to conceptualize these justificatory values and have suggested that dissimilar hegemonicide as about the moral purpose of the state have given sovereignty poles apart denotations in unalike historical contexts. This conceptual move is intended to facilitate a more urbane and systematic construing of the normative foundations of international societies, and to enable us to comprehend their divergent qualities as well as their similarities. According to David Strang, sovereignty is comprehended as a social status that facilitates States as participants within a community of mutual recognition. A clearer construing of the nature of social identities and of the communicative practices surrounding their production and reproduction reveals, however, that this assumption is logically problematical. All human actors both individual and collective have social identities that enable them to operate in a world of complex social processes and practices. Like other constructivists, here, the definition of social distinctiveness is the sets of connotations that an actor ascribes to itself while taking into account the perspective of others, that is, as a social object. Lest entrenched within a comprehensive intricate of higher-order values, the precept of sovereignty cannot alone arrange for the State with a lucid communal distinctiveness, nor has it done so in history. Reign, analogous to distinct autonomy, is not a self-referential worth proficient in individualistically proffering actors with essential details for an act. Shorn of reference to some other higher-order values, it cannot independently inform plans of action or strategies to achieve them. Furthermore, the principle of sovereignty provides an inadequate justificatory fountain for action. If one behaves in a manner that annoys, frustrates or merely affects those of the others, they are entitled to enquire about why such a fashion of conduct. At this point, one must ground his claims to independence in some other deep, socially recognized identity values. Taken to an extreme, this would comprise appealing to intersubjective values that define what it implies to be a fully realized human being.

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With still wider ramifications prehypertension 30 years old buy vasodilan with a visa, the Act also puts at the mercy of managerial heroism the rights of those who enter the country illegally (Schmitt 1996: C19) pulse pressure graph buy generic vasodilan from india. Eric Schmitt reports that in 1995 about 80 per cent of the 110 blood pressure medication ramipril purchase 20mg vasodilan otc,000 cases that immigration judges decided involved people who faced deportation for being in the country illegally (ibid blood pressure medication quiz purchase generic vasodilan from india. Under the new Act, the fate of such people rests entirely on the decisions, supposedly professional ones, of individual immigration officers. However, in terms of the Patriot system, such legislated management of inside and outside instead promised heroic management in the face of attacks on the heartland. As well as restricting the habeas corpus right to appeal to the six-month period following the final state court proceeding, the legislation also demands that federal judges defer to the legal conclusions of state courts about when a conviction violates the constitution. Gregory Nojeim of the American Civil Liberties Union underlined the role of this part of the legislation within the broader apparatus of the Patriot system when he complained that the Act marked `an historic expansion of Federal law-enforcement authority at the expense of civil liberties. Most racistly, its restrictions on the writ of habeas corpus represent the start of a return to the pre-civil rights movement and even prereconstruction days of white supremacist definitions of citizenship and civil rights. Four decades later, an increasingly activist Supreme Court, responding to the nascent civil rights movement, took the writ still further, and, in a landmark ruling in 1953, the Justices said that habeas corpus gave federal judges the authority to consider any constitutional claim, even if the state court had considered and rejected it (ibid. Nevertheless, the official response to the terrorism instantiated in the socalled anti-terrorism Act allowed Americans to forget the white supremacism of the militia subculture in which McVeigh moved by repeating that same supremacism through the curtailment of an anti-racist law. Of the twelve prisoners on the federal death row, nine are AfricanAmerican, one is Hispanic, one is Asian and one is white. McVeigh will be the second white, a rare exception to the general pattern that has seen minorities constitute 78 per cent of the defendants in federal cases against whom prosecutors have sought the death penalty (Dedman 1997: A15). Clearly, though, the jury that found McVeigh guilty could imagine him carrying out the bomb plot. It seemed that, as a mass murderer and therefore automatically an outcast from the heartland, McVeigh had also become an honorary non-white vulnerable to lynching. To this extent, the defense strategy of humanizing McVeigh and trying to show that he was a misdirected patriot was probably doomed from the start. It is to this second major displacement that I turn in the third and final section. But there is also a person at the center whom you will not be able to dismiss easily as a monster or a demon, who could be your son, who could be your brother, who could be your grandson, who loved this country, who served it, but who is just like any of us. What has drawn between ten thousand and forty thousand Americans to these private armies ready to make war with the American government The movie, called Red Dawn (directed by John Milius, an ardent gun rights advocate), is about the Wolverines, a small-town football team, and their guerrilla war against invading Soviet, Nicuraguan and Cuban paratroopers. Beginning with the personal life-story, Kifner notes that McVeigh was badly affected as a boy by the departure of his mother, Mildred McVeigh, from the family home in upstate New York. After she left, McVeigh almost never spoke to her again, and, even after he joined the army, he seemed to harbor a lasting resentment against her. His army buddies also reported that he never had a girlfriend and that this made him a standing joke in the unit. Nevertheless, joining the army did provide McVeigh with another form of long-term and passion-filled relationship. These dreams had been evidenced earlier in events like his appearance at his pre-army workplace dressed like Rambo with crossed ammunition bandoliers. In the army, of course, military dress became the uniform, a uniform that McVeigh seemingly cherished. His was always pressed, his boots always shined, and, as a result, he became a sergeant when his contemporaries were still only privates. He had many of his own too, keeping a private arsenal of nearly a dozen even while in the army. He spent many of his off-hours cleaning these weapons, and his fellow soldiers report that he was also an avid reader of army manuals and gun magazines like Soldier of Fortune (ibid. If it was thus weaponry that McVeigh cathected with a form of displaced desire, that self-defining desire was in turn directed, organized and consolidated by the wider culture of military discipline. He was an obsessive spit-and-polish soldier who embraced the regimented and tightly organized routines of army life with passion: hence his promotion to sergeant.

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