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Although the optical properties of projective light had been known diabetes quizlet questions cheap duetact 16mg otc, the name of the device had not yet been coined blood sugar 200 discount duetact online. And that which is to the right on the outside is portrayed on the left side of the retina; that which is to the left is portrayed on the right; that which is above is portrayed below; that which is below is portrayed above diabetes symptoms but not diabetes cheap duetact 17mg on line. Kepler did not illustrate his retinal theory with a drawing diabetes symptoms blood sugar levels buy generic duetact canada, but Descartes supplied an illustration of the retinal inversion in his La dioptrique (1637). Otherwise, it is generally agreed that della Porta (in his 1589 edition) suggested the use of a lens in the opening to improve the quality of the projected image. Giovanni Battista della Porta, Natural Magick (reprint, New York, j 281 1957), 363-364. Elizabeth Anscombe and Peter Thomas Geach (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1954), 245. In Magiae natura/is (1558, 1589) della Porta popularized the camera obscura as an entertainment device. In his work on optics, De refractione (1593), he suggested the eye was a miniature camera obscura. While Dutch lensmakers Hans Lippershey and Hans Jansen had versions of a device that used convex and concave lenses in a tube in 1609, it was Galileo who made the device famous. After the publication of his 1632 book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican, Galileo was called to Rome, found guilty of heresy, and put under house arrest for the remainder of his life. See the discussion "Microscopes," in Stafford and Terpak, Devices of Wonder, 205-214. Microscopes were used in upper-class drawing rooms and museums and, in this way, were part of a visual culture that prized exhibition and display. The stereoscope and the camera obscura were also used as entertainment as much in the drawing room as in the laboratory. In his book the Great Art of Light and Shadow: Archeology of the Cinema, Laurent Manonni challenges many "erroneous attributions" in the histories written about the camera obscura and magic lantern tradition. He pointedly objects to historians who wrongly attribute its invention to Giovanni Battista della Porta (c. In fact, della Porta merely published a description of it in his Magiae natura/is printed in Naples in 1558. Kepler uses "window" to describe camera obscura opening: "When a screen with a small window is placed in front of the globe within the limit of the sections of the parallels, and the window is smaller than the globe, a picture of the visible hemisphere is projected on to the paper, formed by most of the rays brought together behind the globe at the limit of the last intersection of the rays from a luminous point. Svetlana Alpers is less insistent on the use of the camera obscura in Dutch painting. See Svetlana Alpers, the Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), 13. As Crary points out about the Vermeer debate, the art historical interest in the camera obscura has focused on its effects on the stylistics of painting, and not on techniques of observation (Techniques ofthe Observer, n. Alpers writes: "The problem is that although many six- teenth and seventeenth-century treatises that discuss the artistic use of the camera obscura recommend tracing its image, we have no evidence of cases in which artists actually did this. The argument from use, rather than from analogy, has had to proceed therefore by trying to establish specific phenomena present in paintings that are not seen by unaided vision and that, it is concluded, must result from the use of the camera obscura" (The Art ofDescribing, 30). Alpers maintains that Dutch paintings do not adhere to the Albertian concept 25 of a picture as "a framed surface or pane situated at a distance from a viewer who looks through it at a substitute world. Alpers characterizes the geographically defined styles as "visual culture," citing 27 in it that is of interest to us in understanding Dutch painting" (The Art ofDescribing, 33). In this regard, Jonathan Crary astutely points out that Kepler may not be representative of only northern visual culture and that the camera obscura held a transregional importance in the writings ofLeibniz, Newton, Locke, and Descartes. The eighteenth century extended this idea to create optical glasses (optiques or zograscopes) and show-boxes (Guckkasten), the latter sometimes with moving images. John Baptist Porta [Giambattista della Porta], Natural Magick in Twenty Books (London, Johannes Zahn, Oculus artificialis teledioptricus sive telescopium was principally devoted to r658), 364; emphasis added. Both of 284 these elements have turned his work into a central and admirable example of a "visual stud1 ies" methodology.

However blood sugar vs a1c chart order duetact 17mg on-line, they are not only competing centers of dominance blood glucose 600 duetact 16mg amex, but also lived spaces of empathy and international solidarity where scattered social movements are connected in a network of global cities blood glucose excursions buy duetact with a visa. Without the multifaceted wealth of urban heterogeneity diabetes symptoms ppt purchase 16 mg duetact with mastercard, beyond the evil eye of normalization, even the homogenized mainstream would have been asphyxiated long ago. Visible centers are dominating the presence, but the future is developing on the margins, in cracks, crevices, and the spaces between. Increasingly now, works are regarded as "under construction" and changing in versions; considered only temporarily fixed and adaptable to contexts and usages. However, cultural practice is moving on to a processbased understanding of interventions that deals with flows and fields. It confronts a playing field of tactical and strategic moves where artistic operations intervene in the invisible dynamic interactions of material and immaterial. From Tactics to Strategy In 1990s critical media culture the focus was largely on questions of the tactical, as in "tactical media. Some believe that strategy focuses on power and forces relationships assuming a bounded place that serves as the basis for relations with a distinct exterior. From this perspective, strategic thought seems inadequate for marginal or heterogeneous agents of 396 ko n r a d b e c k e r change. But the concept of territory and space has to be extended-from the absolute space of walls, streets, and mountains to the relational spacetime of lived spaces, of desires, dreams, memory, frustration, phantasms, and the technologies of the imagination. Strategies provide roadmaps toward desired objectives, and better intelligence offers potentially more precise approaches toward goals to be achieved. Strategies of conceptual manipulation of relational spacetime transform potentials of cognitive labor into realities of a constitutive informational matrix. Economic worldviews produce models and their underlying methods shape the reality they represent. Reference points of orientation for mapping the terrain harden into rock solid fundamental assumptions. From an understanding of representations of the real and the unreal and of processes and flows, critical art gives primacy to agency and intervening in a postaesthetic strategy. There is a need to go beyond tactical media interventions and their decorative appropriations driven by the creative industry curricula. Sustainable action needs to go beyond the tactical toward strategic operations implying a trajectory of purpose and intention, if only virtual. Not spectacular action heroes but discreet operations of a process of change are at work in longterm agency and extended trajectories. Any security or business intelligence unit knows the effectiveness of clandestine and covert operations to influence situations. Avoiding the evil eye of their masters, secretive associations also organized the first slave population to throw off the yoke of European colonialism. When Voudou priest Boukman Dutty instigated an uprising, it sparked the Haitian Revolution. Focusing on the deployment of tactics in the Art of War, Sun Tzu writes: "All men can see the tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved. Today more than ever, culture is economically exploited and biopolitically instrumentalized, robbing humans of the chance for surprise. Stunted perspectives steal a future of art beyond status projection or decorum and money laundering. In the face of this it is crucial not to fall back into repeating history as a farce and instead to push ahead with lucid analyses that then may lead to future intelligent tactics. New strategies of resistance are needed-in the virtual and the real, the symbolic and the physical. The challenges ahead demand cogent processes that enable advanced concepts of cultural articulation. Art practices, as autonomous examinations of processes, investigate spheres of influence, as well as systemic reality. Players explore attractors of popular imagination at the crossroads of the trivial. Invisible like an algorithmic program in an embedded processor, information age cultural agents do not show their hand. Individual contributions in electronic dance music dissolve in a stream of mixes and remixes, discarding anything that becomes too visible in the alternative mainstream. New forms of collective practices that intervene in processes are more relevant than past models of a dubious individual genius.

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The general attitude toward technology is an important issue in understanding Japanese protomedia art metabolic disease erie pa purchase duetact overnight. On the other hand type 2 diabetes medications side effects cheap duetact 16mg without prescription, not only industry but also scientists (Tezuka was a medical doctor) promoted the idea that overly negative attitudes toward nuclear power should be overcome diabetes type 2 differential diagnosis buy duetact 17 mg lowest price. A highlight of the Osaka Exposition in 1970 was the Electricity Pavilion lit by electric power from the brandnew nuclear power plant diabetes bsl definition buy duetact master card. Tsuguharu Fujita (Leonard Foujita) and Taikan Yokoyama were the most criticized artists. The Japanese/British novelist Kazuo Ishiguro illustrates the life of painters after the war in his novel An Artist of the Floating World (1986). His dualism theory (taikyokushugi) regards conflicts between contradictory ideas as the source of creation, which would later provide a delicate twist in the participation of avantgarde artists in the Universal Exposition 1970 in Osaka. Richie later came back to Japan and joined the 1960s experimental film movement as a filmmaker. More precisely, the occupation of the Amami Islands continued until the end of 1953. The return of Okinawa to Japan continued to be a major political issue until it finally took place in 1972. The boat and the fishermen were seriously contaminated, and the chief radio operator died after several months. Most serious were the labor struggles at coalmines that continued through the 1950s as the result of the shift from coal to oil. The most critical clashes took place in 1953 and 1960, and a series of serious accidents occurred in the first half of the 1960s. The 2007 film Hula Girl is based on a real story that occurred at a coalmine in Joban in 1965. The association was meant to promote the "liberal and democratic development of Japanese art," and cofounders included prewar proletarian artists. Works by artists who died in the war, such as Masamu Yanase and the surrealist painter Aimitsu, were shown in the second exhibition in 1948. NihonBijyutsuKai maintained its political agenda and during the 1960s often exhibited artworks from communist countries. Major newspaper companies often sponsor art exhibitions and other cultural activities. The author was involved in largescale media art events sponsored by Yomiuri in the early 2000s. The venue could be either a museum or an exhibition floor of a major department store. Showing serious art exhibitions at a department store is another Japanese tradition, which was stronger when the number of museums was limited. The bakery still continues operations nationwide today, with its main shop staying in Ginza, Tokyo. After their artworks were classified as "antiart" at the Yomiuri Independent exhibition of the previous year, the artists decided to form a group. Members included Masunobu Yoshimura, Ushio Shinohara, Genpei (Gempei) Akasegawa, and Shusaku Arakawa. This group of artists split into two camps during the leadup to the Osaka Expo 1970. While Isozaki played a major role and Yoshimura also was involved, Akasegawa joined the anti Expo campaign.

Regarding the reception of the "new media" of the 19th century diabetes symptoms joints order duetact no prescription, John Tagg (1993) has noted that the more experimental aspects of photography were not well assimilated and the impact of the discourses of photography and contemporary art on each other was highly asymmetrical: the latter changed very little diabetes signs and symptoms nhs buy duetact with a mastercard, while the former lost its edge in the process of fitting in diabetes test yahoo buy 16mg duetact fast delivery. A proactive theorization of the issues and stakes involved may play an important role in informing the ways in which that merger unfolds diabetes 2 cure discount duetact 16 mg otc. A history of art that accepts, if not valorizes, the explicit use of technological media, as in kinetic art and new media, will reconsider its precursors. In this scenario, one can imagine an alternative history of photography that celebrates the chronophotographic practices of Eadweard Muybridge, EtienneJules Marey, and Thomas Eakins concurrent with Impressionism. Such a revisionist history will recognize that such work consists not just of the images produced but of the complex and inextricable amalgam of theories, technologies, and techniques devised in order to explore perception. It will recognize, as well, the substantial transit of ideas between art and science (Marey was a successful scientist whose work influenced Muybridge, who conducted extensive research at University of Pennsylvania and collaborated with Eakins, both artists deeply concerned with biomechanics. The Eighth (and final) Impressionist Exhibition in 1886 predates the introduction of the Kodak #1 camera (1888), prior to which the practice of photography was limited to professionals and elite amateurs. By contrast, new media started becoming a widespread, popular phenomenon by the mid1990s, with the advent of the Web (1993) occurring just four years prior to the appearance of an exhibition of net. Most importantly, since the 1880s, photography and its extensions in cinema and television radically altered visual culture, saturating it with images. The context of image production and consumption during the Impressionist era-and its impact on art-simply cannot be compared with how the image economy since the late 1990s has impacted art (to say nothing of how key artistic tendencies since the 1960s strategically shifted focus away from imagecentric discourses. For if he genuinely embraces the socalled "postmedium condition" as he suggested at Art Basel, then the exclusionary prejudice against the use of technological media in and as art would not exist. The curator would not favor indirect influences of technology on art and his discussions and exhibitions of contemporary art would be blind to medium. This ontology, predicated on binary oppositions, must be challenged and its artifice and ideological aims deconstructed in order to recognize the inseparability of artists, artworks, tools, techniques, concepts, and concretions as actors in a network of signification. The PostMedium Condition and Its Discontents Far from embracing the "postmedium condition," Rosalind Krauss, who coined the term, considers it an alarming situation that must be resisted. In place of traditional media, declared dead by postmodernism, these artists, she claims, have adopted alternative forms of "technical supports. Such contentions, tenuous at best, limit the interpretation of highly complex works and practices to a single aspect- just as Greenberg did-obscuring the complex layering of ideas, media, and technical supports that converge in them. But it does the same violence to the subtleties of the specific media-and media ecologies-that the artists employ in, and as part of, their work. The artist Krauss singles out as the primary culprit of postmediality is Joseph Kosuth, whose offense appears to be a postDuchampian theory and practice that is not limited to mediumspecific concerns but demands a broader questioning of the nature of art itself, as articulated in his influential threepart essay "Art After Philosophy" (1969). Susan Kozel (artistic direction and concept), Jeannette Ginslov (video, edit, and concept), Wubkje Kuindersma (dance), Camilla Ryd (images and interaction design), Jacek Smolicki (sound), Daniel Spikol (technical production), Oliver Starpov (dance). Dance improvisation and screen dance techniques for video capture and editing are combined with augmented reality. Choreographies are suspended as hidden layers of media, discovered by joining physical space and smart devices. This tension is, in fact, as Artie Vierkant (2010) argues, a central concern of so called postInternet artists (including Oliver Laric, Seth Price, and himself), for whom the artwork "lies equally in the version of the object one would encounter at a gallery or museum, the images and other representations disseminated through the Internet and print publications, bootleg images of the object or its representations, and variations on any of these as edited and recontextualized by any other author. The theories and technologies at the core of the historical development of new media tools, together with the artistic and social practices associated with their application, seem to occupy a hybrid stance, straddling medium specificity and a range of nonspecific tendencies, including intermedia, multimedia, participation, and convergence. On one hand, new media practices and discourses embrace medium specificity, paralleling structural film practices. For example, the early work of Steina and Woody Vasulka explores the intrinsic material qualities of video as an electronic medium, including the relationship between audio and video, feedback, and realtime registration. On the other hand, the foundational principle of digital computing theorized by Alan Turing conceives of the computer as a "universal machine," one that can emulate the specific functions of any other dedicated device. C o n t e m p o r a ry a rt a n d n e w m e d i a 473 Contra Krauss, this affirmation of what might be called "postmedia multiplicity" should be embraced as a strategic questioning of the nature of media in artistic, technological, and social contexts. Along these lines, the curator suggests that, art creates an awareness about production methods and human relationships produced by the technologies of its day.