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Marya Hornbacher recounted her sense of being objectified: I remember the body from the outside in schedule 8 medications list purchase xalatan 2.5 ml without a prescription. There will be copious research on the habit of women with eating disorders perceiving themselves through other eyes medications 1-z discount xalatan 2.5 ml overnight delivery, as if there were some Great Observer looking over their shoulder medicine 72 hours buy cheap xalatan. Looking treatment ingrown toenail buy xalatan canada, in particular, at their bodies and finding, more and more often as they get older, countless flaws. According to the theory, objectification encourages eating disorders because female bodies are evaluated according to the cultural ideal, and women strive to have their bodies conform so that they will be positively evaluated. As they internalize the ideal of thinness, they increase their risk for eating disorders (Calogero, Davis, & Thompson, 2005; Thompson & Stice, 2001)-especially in combination with learning to see their bodies as objects from the outside: As Hornbacher noted, if they hold an ideal of thinness and see their bodies as objects, they become more Eating Disorders 4 5 9 Figure 10. This theory proposes that whereas boys are encouraged to view their bodies as instruments that can perform tasks (agents), girls are encouraged to consider their bodies as objects and commodities to be evaluated (objects)-which makes girls more vulnerable to developing an eating disorder. Consider this study: Female participants alone in a dressing room with a fulllength mirror were asked to try on either a one-piece swimsuit or a sweater. While wearing the new clothing, the women completed a checklist assessing body shame (questions included: "I wish I were invisible," "I wish I could cover my body. Women who tried on bathing suits reported more shame about their bodies and subsequently ate less than their sweater-clad counterparts. Male participants who wore bathing suits did not exhibit this response (Fredrickson et al. As girls enter puberty, when female bodies are increasingly viewed in sexual terms, comments on their bodies-such as catcalls or whistles when they walk down the street- may increase their sense of bodies as objects or commodities (Bryant-Waugh, 1993; Larkin, Rice, & Russell, 1999). Today, even preschool children attribute more negative qualities to fat women than to fat men (Turnbull, Heaslip, & McLeod, 2000). Another explanation for the gender difference in prevalence rates of eating disorders focuses on the politics of a cultural ideal of thinness for women. Women then spend significant time, energy, and money trying to emulate this thinner ideal through exercise, diet, medications, and even surgery, which in turn dissipates their economic and political power (Barber, 1998; Bordo, 1993). Although today males are much less likely to develop any type of eating disorder than are women, this large gender discrepancy may not last. Data suggest that male physical ideals are increasingly unrealistic: Male film stars and Mr. Just as females covet bodies similar to those promoted in the media, so do males (Ricciardelli et al. Joe action figure (left) with one from 2000 (right), male action figures have become more muscular over the last 25 years (Baghurst et al. Throughout the day, I would think about everything I ate, every physical movement I did, and whether it contributed to muscle loss in any way. I would go to bed and pray that I would wake up and think about something else the next day. Most females in Western societies are exposed to images of thin women as ideals in the media, yet only some women develop an eating disorder. Neurological factors (such as a genetic vulnerability) may make some individuals more susceptible to the psychological and social factors related to eating disorders (Bulik, 2005). For instance, researchers hypothesize that young women who are prone to anxiety (neuroticism)-which is both a psychological factor and a neurological factor-are more susceptible to the effects of a familial focus on appearance, a social factor (Davis et al. In turn, these two factors are associated with weight preoccupation, creating feedback loops: After statistically controlling for body size, researchers found that young women who were preoccupied with weight were more prone to anxiety and were more likely to have families that focused on appearance. A preoccupation with weight can also lead to dieting, which can create its own neurochemical changes (neurological factor) that may lead to eating disorders (Walsh et al. In addition, the stringent rules that people may set for a diet can lead them to feel out of control with eating if they "violate" those rules (psychological factor). Further, people with higher levels of perfectionism and body dissatisfaction (psychological factors) may seek out comments about their appearance (social factor) or pay more attention to appearance-related comments (psychological factor) (Halmi et al. This difficulty arises because the symptoms themselves-restricting, bingeing, purging, excessive exercise, malnourishment-create neurological (and other biological), psychological, and social changes. Neurological factors associated with eating disorders include: · positive and negative reinforcement of symptoms of eating disorders (restricting, bingeing, and purging); · certain personality traits: perfectionism, harm avoidance, neuroticism, and low self-esteem; · disinhibited eating, triggered by the last supper effect, especially in restrained eaters; and · · comorbid psychological disorders in female adolescents, particularly depression. However, these neural patterns may vary for specific types of anorexia, and may be affected by dieting. Patients with anorexia also have reduced gray and white matter; · Social factors related to eating disorders include: · family members and friends who provide a model for eating, concerns about weight, and focus on appearance through their own behaviors and responses to others; · reduced responsiveness to serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in mood, anxiety, and binge eating. One theory about the role of serotonin in bulimia involves tryptophan, a building block of serotonin; · cultural factors, which play a key role, as evidenced by the increased prevalence over time of bulimia and concern about weight that is part of anorexia.

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Housekeeping (1987) Drama An eccentric aunt comes to care for two sisters in the Pacific Northwest after the suicide of their mother treatment table order xalatan with a visa. I Never Promised You a Rose Garden (1977) Drama Accurate rendition of the popular book by the same name symptoms 7 weeks pregnancy 2.5 ml xalatan free shipping. There is a sympathetic portrayal of psychiatry and treatment; a breakthrough occurs when the protagonist first realizes she is able to feel pain medicine used to induce labor 2.5 ml xalatan mastercard. A difficult film medicine game buy 2.5 ml xalatan amex, but interesting, with a heuristic presentation of hallucinations. Julien Donkey-Boy (1999) Drama Director Harmony Korine breaks the narrative "Now you stay down here until you see the truth. Goya in Bordeaux (1999) Drama/Biography Spanish film, depicting the famous painter, Francisco de Goya on his deathbed, who recalls major events of his life, hallucinates, and experiences severe migraines. Grizzly Man (2005) Documentary Werner Herzog film about Timothy Treadwell, a well-known naturalist who lived with grizzly bears for 13 summers. The viewer wonders if Treadwell had a psychotic or bipolar disorder as he became increasingly wild, and his behavior increasingly bizarre. Appendix F: Films Illustrating Psychopathology 285 flow in this film about the horrors of schizophrenia, based on and dedicated to his uncle whom he wanted to take out of a psychiatric institution to be in the film. Keane (2004) Mystery/Thriller An engaging depiction of a man who begins to mentally deteriorate because he believes his daughter is missing. Chapman was obsessed with Holden Caulfield from the Catcher in the Rye and believed he was the protagonist; he read from the book at the murder scene and trial. The viewer is left to hypothesize whether the character has schizophrenia, dissociative fugue, or is an enlightened spiritual being; whichever the case, the portrayal and diagnostic criteria are convincing for each. La Dolce Vita (1960) Drama Vintage Fellini film with an interesting vignette in which hundreds of Roman citizens develop a mass delusion following reports of a sighting of the Virgin Mary. Sensitive, meaningful film with a quality portrayal of a physician acting as a psychotherapist implementing exposure therapy. Love Object (2004) Thriller A young man dealing with work stress copes by purchasing a $10,600 lifelike, silicone doll that he begins to believe is subtly torturing him as he deteriorates into psychosis. Lunatics: A Love Story (1992) Comedy A former mental patient spends six months hidden away in his apartment. Lust for Life (1956) Biography Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh and Anthony Quinn as Paul Gauguin. Man From Earth, the (2007) Drama/Sci-Fi A mysterious, successful professor attempts to convince his friends he can live forever and that he has met a variety of history figures. Misery (1990) Horror Kathy Bates plays an apparently delusional woman who becomes convinced she is justified in capturing a novelist and forcing him to rewrite his latest novel to meet her tastes. Out of the Shadow (2004) Documentary Realistic and moving depiction of schizophrenia and its impact on the family. Interesting for discussions on differentiation of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorders. Proof (2005) Drama Gwyneth Paltrow portrays the daughter of a famous mathematician (Anthony Hopkins). She begins to develop similar symptoms of schizophrenia similar to those shown by her father as she attempts to solve a rare proof that has baffled other mathematicians. Rampo Noir (2005, Japan) Horror Four short, surreal horror films that are adaptations and tributes to the Japanese poet, Rampo. Red Dragon (2002) Thriller/Drama Ralph Fiennes, as the serial killer in this prequel to Silence of the Lambs, deepens in his delusional framework as he becomes convinces he is a dragon. Repulsion (1965) Horror Powerful, unforgettable film about sexual repression and psychotic decompensation. Saint of Fort Washington, the (1993) Drama A man with schizophrenia is evicted from his home winds up in a shelter, where he is befriended by a street-wise Vietnam veteran. Santa Sangre (1989) Horror/Thriller A disturbing film about a young man forced to witness the mutilation of his mother and the suicide of his father.

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Some of these people report that they miss aspects of their manic episodes and feel that the medication blunts their emotions treatment interstitial cystitis purchase xalatan online. Patients with a bipolar disorder may be given antidepressant medication for depression symptoms 5 days after conception order xalatan from india, but such medications can induce mania and so should be taken along with a mood stabilizer; in addition treatment pancreatitis discount xalatan 2.5 ml mastercard, patients with a bipolar disorder who take antidepressant Mood stabilizer A category of medication that minimizes mood swings medications emts can administer order 2.5 ml xalatan free shipping. Mood Disorders and Suicide 2 2 9 medication should take it for as brief a period as possible (Rosenbaum et al. Antidepressants may not be prescribed for people with rapid cycling, however, because these drugs can exacerbate the cycling (Schneck et al. For a manic episode, an antipsychotic medication such as olanzapine (Zyprexa) or aripiprazole (Ablify), or a high dose of a benzodiazepine may be given (Arana & Rosenbaum, 2000; Keck et al. Despite the number of medications available to treat bipolar disorders, mood episodes still recur; in one study, half of the participants developed a subsequent mood episode within 2 years of recovery from an earlier episode (Perlis, Ostacher, et al. Treatment that targets psychological factors focuses on helping patients develop patterns of thought and behavior that minimize the risk of relapse (Fava et al. A daily social rhythm log, like this one, can help patients identify the disruptions that increase their mood symptoms. Once they identify these disruptions, they can develop strategies to minimize them. Targeting Social Factors: Interacting with Others Treatments that target social factors are designed to help patients minimize disruptions in their social patterns and develop strategies for better social interactions (Lam et al. Treatment can then focus on developing effective ways for the patient to minimize such social stressors. Other treatments that target social factors focus on the family, educating family members about bipolar disorder and providing emergency counseling during crises (Miklowitz et al. Also, family therapy that reduces the critical behavior of family members can reduce relapses (Honig et al. Another treatment with a social focus is group therapy or a self-help group, either of which can decrease the sense of isolation or shame that people with bipolar disorders may experience; group members support each other as they try to make positive changes. As patients begin to recover from a bipolar disorder, they interact differently with others, develop a more regular schedule, and come to view themselves differently. They change the attributions they make about events and even change how reliably they take medication for the disorder. Furthermore, the successful lithium treatment allowed her to have better relationships with others (social factor), which led to a positive change in how she saw herself (psychological factor). Symptoms of a manic episode include grandiosity, pressured speech, flight of ideas, distractibility, poor judgment, decreased need for sleep, and psychomotor agitation. Bipolar disorders are influenced by genetic factors, which may influence mood disorders in general. Psychological factors that are associated with bipolar disorders include the cognitive distortions and negative thinking associated with depression. Moreover, some people with bipolar I disorder may have residual cognitive deficits after a manic episode is over. When manic, patients may receive an antipsychotic medication or a · Reread Case 6. However, more recent research suggests that such a relationship may be weakening over time (Hakko, Rдsдnen, & Tiihonen, 1998; Jessen, Steffensen, & Jensen, 1998; Parker et al. One day, when deeply depressed, she did more than think about it-she attempted suicide. Here she describes her motivation: I could not stand the pain any longer, could not abide the bone-weary and tiresome person I had become, and felt that I could not continue to be responsible for the turmoil I was inflicting upon my friends and family. I was doing the only fair thing for the people I cared about; it was also the only sensible thing to do for myself. The hopelessness that she had felt went away, and she was able to enjoy life again. Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Risks In the United States and Canada, suicide is ranked 11th among causes of death (McIntosh, 2003; Statistics Canada, 2005).

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Biofeedback is a technique by which patients can bring involuntary bodily activity treatment 2 lung cancer buy discount xalatan 2.5 ml, such as heart rate or muscle tension medications pictures order xalatan master card, under voluntary control treatment chronic bronchitis generic xalatan 2.5 ml with mastercard. Biofeedback training sessions require the patient to monitor the targeted bodily activity and medicine information xalatan 2.5 ml low price, through trial and error, discover how to modify this activity. Neurosurgery, usually considered a treatment of last resort, is sometimes used to modify brain structures that contribute to severe disorders in cases where other treatments have not been effective. Biomedical treatments used with adults may need to be modified for use with children or elderly patients. Treatments that target psychological factors specifically focus on mental processes, mental contents, affect, and behaviors (see Table 4. These treatments differ in the specific psychological factors that they target, their goals, and the methods used. However, when successful, all of these treatments affect mental processes, mental contents, affect, and behaviors. Freud promoted psychic determinism, the theory that all behavior, no matter how minor (except for biological functions), has underlying psychological causes. The drives are restrained and regulated by the superego, which houses the internalized morals of society and the family. Freud held that psychological problems arise in large part from conflicts among the urges of the id and from the regulatory actions of the superego and ego. Rather than treating such problems medically-with medications or medical procedures, as was done in Europe at the end of the 19th century-Freud treated patients by having them talk about their problems and trying to discern the unconscious causes of the problems. The ultimate goal of psychoanalysis is to help patients manage impulses and urges more adaptively. To attain this end, the patient tries to: (1) understand the events in his or her past (especially interactions with his or her parents), and (2) understand how those events and his or her unconscious urges influence current difficulties. The theory holds that once patients become aware of the unconscious urges that are creating problems, they will be capable of more adaptively handling impulses arising from those urges. That is, when patients have attained sufficient insight into their problems, they can make more satisfying and productive choices; insight, according to proponents of psychodynamic therapy, is the main catalyst of change. Psychoanalysis is time-consuming and expensive (and rarely covered by health insurance plans). Patients meet with their psychoanalyst (a therapist who provides psychoanalysis) four or five times per week, and the average patient participates in 835 sessions over at least 4 years (Voth & Orth, 1973). Psychoanalysis is difficult to study scientifically because each patient receives a unique course of treatment (tailored to his or her own personal issues) over a long period of time. Nevertheless, the available studies have not usually found this treatment to be effective for many disorders. Psychoanalysis is less common today than in previous decades because of the time and cost involved and its uncertain benefits. Very brief forms of this less intensive treatment can consist of as few as 12 to 20 sessions (Bloom, 1997; Malan, 1976; Sifneos, 1992). Both psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy are designed to help patients understand that their unconscious motivations influence their behavior in specific ways and to help them make better choices. According to Freud, however, such treatment is not a cure, but a method for transforming deep misery into mundane unhappiness. Psychodynamic therapy A form of psychotherapy based on psychoanalysis but that involves less frequent sessions, less emphasis on aggressive and sexual drives, and more attention to present experiences. The Therapeutic Alliance Both psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy emphasize the importance of a therapeutic alliance, the positive relationship between the therapist and the patient (Greenberg & Mitchell, 1983; Klein, 1932; Kohut, 1977; Sullivan, 1953; Winnicott, 1958). This patient-therapist collaboration, a social factor, provides the trust and good will needed to undertake the challenging work of the therapy. The therapeutic alliance also can supply patients with a corrective emotional experience, an opportunity to work through past unresolved experiences in a safe environment with the therapist (Alexander & French, 1946). The therapist also uses interpretation when a patient makes a speech error, such as saying "father" instead of "bother"; such errors are thought to be laden with meaning and are often called Freudian slips. According to Freud, interpretation should help the patient become aware of his or her unconscious conflicts.