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As you examine the lanes virus respiratory buy azihexal in united states online, note there is a band in the lambda with no corresponding bands in the heavy chain lanes virus protection reviews buy azihexal american express. If the immune system is dysfunctional bacterial resistance purchase cheapest azihexal and azihexal, many types of immunofixation patterns can be seen strong antibiotics for sinus infection buy azihexal uk. It is difficult, if not impossible, to tell what the disease state is from looking at the individual pattern. There are arguments pro and con about whether to report this or leave it as normal. It is better to give the physician the information and allow him or her to decide whether to ignore it or follow up. The band in the pattern above is around that level of concentration and has a size and intensity similar to an alpha1 in a serum protein pattern. The most visible band is in the lambda lane and there are two fairly well-defined edges. It is barely visible in the protein lane but you can see a darkening of the gamma at the same migration area as the lambda. As you examine the IgG, IgA, and IgM lanes you can see something in the IgG lane that again corresponds to the lambda and the protein band. In order to give accurate information to the physician, you should more fully describe this band. In cases like this you should always suggest a follow up in 3 to 6 months if clinically indicated. If it had been reported initially, the physician would have been following the patient. It is better to report these small M-proteins and let the physician decide how to react to it. Initial Sample - Suspicious IgG Kappa Two Years Later - IgG Kappa In the initial specimen, the bands are light but there is a well-defined edge at top and bottom. The report should be: Suspicious or poorly-defined IgG kappa; Suggest repeat in 3 to 6 months if clinically indicated. This is a sample you might want to repeat with a higher dilution for the kappa lane. It appears to be prozoning or antigen excess but it could be an IgG kappa with a free kappa. Whenever a sample is repeated in an attempt to clarify it, you only need to repeat the lanes that you are unsure about. In the case above, you would repeat the kappa with a couple of dilutions, such as 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40. If you are trying to tease out a small M-protein hidden in normal or elevated blush, you use dilutions on either side of your normal dilution. If the normal dilution is 1:10 for an IgG, you would repeat with dilutions of 1:5 and 1:20. Remember that as you dilute out the uninvolved immunoglobulins you also dilute the M-protein. So, sometimes the process is not successful and you have to describe what you see. In patterns like this if you start at the outer edge and work your way in toward the application point, the more gradual increase in color intensity is easier to differentiate. For instance, look at the kappa and lambda lanes toward the bottom of the staining. The lambda has a more distinct edge at the bottom and migrates with the heavy chain band seen in the IgA lane. The kappa has a less distinct edge at the bottom as you follow the color in from the very bottom up to the point of application. After a few times of seeing this, you will be able to distinguish it with less effort. IgA Lambda 9 Copyright Helena Laboratories 2011 Multiple M-Proteins the next pattern has several M-proteins.

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Also use Chlamydia trachomatis and see Bacillus subtilis if necessary) - 2025 antibiotics used to treat mrsa cheap 250mg azihexal with amex, 1830 bacteria have cell walls discount azihexal 500mg on-line, 1552 antibiotics for acne good or bad purchase azihexal 500mg with visa, 1550 antibiotics for uti safe for breastfeeding order azihexal 100mg visa, 1246, 1206, 880, 822, 802, 787, 727, 722, 489, 432, 80, 20 Constipation (also use Parasites general and roundworm sets if necessary) - 3176, 1550, 880, 832, 802, 787, 776, 727, 444, 440, 422, 20 Contusion (bruise) - 9. Use 5000 for 15 min) 5000, 2127, 2080, 2050, 2013, 2008, 2003, 2000, 1850, 880, 803, 800, 787, 727, 660, 484, 465, 440, 35, 20, 6. Also use Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella, and Shigella) - 1552, 802, 832 Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation. If chronic or with bloating, also see Parasites general) - 10000, 880, 1550, 832, 800, 787, 727, 465, 444, 20, 125, 95, 72, 4. Use Parasites, enterobiasis) Enterococcinum (homeopathic nosode for Strep family organisms found in the digestive and urinary tracts) - 686, 409 Enterohepatitis (inflammation of bowel & liver) - 552, 932, 953 Enterovirus General (generic term meaning small virus, includes Echo, Coxsackie, and Polio) - 5000, 3636, 2632, 1850, 1500, 1488, 1422, 1189, 1044, 922, 868, 845, 822, 788, 776, 766, 742, 733, 721, 676, 654, 625, 620, 612, 610, 608, 595, 515, 487, 461, 435, 423, 380, 322, 283, 232, 144, 136, 20 Enuresis (bed wetting. Use with parasite sets) - 10000, 880, 787, 727 Epicoccum - 734, 778 Epicondylitis (tennis elbow, lateral or vertical) - 1. Also see General antiseptic and dental freqs) - 880, 787, 727 Euglena - 432, 3215, 3225, 3325, 6448 Eustachian tube inflammation (also use General Antiseptic) - 1550, 880, 802, 787, 776, 727, 465 Eye disorders (blurred vision, cataracts, crossed eyes, diplopia, infections, etc. Also see Fibroid freqs) - 20 Fatigue general - 428, 424, 664, 660, 464, 125, 120, 95, 72, 20, 444, 1865, 10000, 5000 Febris wolhynia (a Rickettsia illness, transmitted by lice, that is debilitating and conducive to relapse) - 547, 356 Fel tauri (homeopathic preparation of ox bile) ­ 672 Feli - 435, 742 Felis - 430, 834, 2232, 3233 Felon 1 (pus, infection of finger tips) - 657, 659, 738, 751 Felon 2 - 663, 665, 720, 722 Feloris Wolyhnica ­ 547 Fever (some causes) - 1552, 880, 800, 832, 422, 2112, 787, 727, 20 Fever sunstroke - 20, 440, 880 Fibroadenoma mamae (non cancerous, fibrous nodules in the breasts. Also soak with vegetable oil, let sit at least 15 minutes, and rinse with thyme tea. Also use Salmonella typhimurium and see General antiseptic, Abdominal pain, and Abdominal inflammation. See also Strep pneumonia, Strep aureus, Pharyngitis, Dental, Parasite general, and General antiseptic sets) - 1550, 802, 880, 787, 727, 20 Hallucinations - 10000, 880, 787, 727, 20 Hand foot and mouth syndrome (a mild viral infection found in young children) - 232, 237, 1214, 1243, 1244, 1271, 5411 Hangover (see also Kidney and Liver support freqs) - 10000, 522, 146 Hay fever (only some types) - 880, 787, 727, 20 Head injury followup (Seek immediate medical attention for head injuries! See also Chlamydia, Staph infection, Circulatory stasis, and Kidney freq sets) - 80, 160, 20, 73, 3. Run 676 for 10 min, 676*) - 2950, 2819, 2779, 2167, 880, 728, 705, 695, 676, 352, 347 Helicobacter pylori 1 - 2167, 728, 880, 2950 Helicobacter pylori 2 - 695, 2779, 705, 2819 Helicobacter pylori 3 - 0. Also can be used for measles, chicken and small pox, mononucleosis, shingles, rubella, cold sores, epstein barr, variola, stoma stomatosis, and pyorrhea. All frequencies can run 60 sec except 2950, which runs 180 sec) ­ 2950, 322, 476, 468, 589, 664, 785, 822, 895, 936, 944, 1043, 1614, 1871, 2062, 1489, 3742, 748 Herpes type 1 anec comp (combines most anecdotal freqs for Simplex I) - 8650, 7484, 5641, 3742, 2950, 2489, 1871, 1850, 1800, 1614, 1550, 1500, 935. Use all freqs for 5 min if necessary) - 7766, 7764, 7762, 7760, 7344, 5000, 3672, 2720, 2050, 2008, 1947, 1674, 1550, 1500, 1234, 885, 880, 875, 800, 786, 728, 683, 512, 464, 440, 304, 20 Influenza 1 99 00 - 10000, 880, 727, 330, 728 Influenza 1957 A Asian - 768, 574 Influenza 1978 - 844, 814, 610 Influenza 1979 - 123, 513, 522, 565, 788, 601 Influenza 1983 - 424, 730, 734, 428 Influenza 1989 - 216, 322, 627, 703, 748 Influenza 1993 - 522, 615, 778, 850, 959 Influenza 1993 secondary - 207, 254, 580, 582, 584, 586, 588, 848, 947, 7967, 8910, 739, 741, 760, 765, 773, 915 Influenza 1994 - 689, 697, 699, 798 Influenza 1994 secondary - 337, 690, 868, 869, 702, 727, 729, 776, 779 Influenza 1997 1998 - 2008, 880, 787, 727, 35, 20, 465 Influenza 2 99 00 - 440, 465, 613, 666, 727, 787, 800, 1000, 5000, 10000 Influenza 2003 2004 1 - 7344, 3672, 1234, 880, 743, 727, 683, 464, 452, 333, 72, 200, 93. If chronic and no long term relief, use Parasite sets including Parasites general and Parasites blood flukes. Bio, run 160, 500, 1600, 5000 with pulse 4 60, 1600 500 160 with pulse 2 60, 160 324 528 with pulse 2 60 converge 1 1) ­ 160, 500, 1600, 5000, 324, 528 Kaposis sarcoma (use Cancer Kaposis sarcoma) Kidney insufficiency - 9. Also see Strep general and General infection) - 377, 471, 626, 628, 634, 774, 2162, 7867, 714, 724 Liver enlargement - 727, 787, 880 Liver fluke (Use Parasites, flukes) Liver necrosis (use Listeriose, Liver support, Parasites schistosoma mansoni) Liver stores bile cholesterol - 21. See also Schumann response) - 10000, 880, 787, 776, 727, 650, 625, 600, 444, 1865, 125, 95, 72, 20 Low blood pressure (use hypotension) Luesinum Syphilinum (use Syphillis) Lumbago - 10000, 800, 880, 787, 727, 125, 95, 72, 444, 1865, 9. Also see Perniciosia) - 4, 20, 28, 222, 550, 713, 880, 930, 1032, 1433, 1444, 1445, 455, 743 Malaria 1 - 20, 555 Malaria 2 - 20, 28, 787, 880 Malaria 3 (all freqs 5 to 15 min each) - 880, 800, 787, 728, 20 Malaria Falciparum 1 - 1518, 1348, 1473, 1002, 1019 Malassezia furfur (causes tinea versicolor. Also use General antiseptic) - 1550, 802, 880, 787, 727, 465, 428, 33, 329, 5000, 1130, 782, 9 Meningcoccus Virus - 720 Meningioma (a benign, slow-growing tumor of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord) - 446, 535, 537 Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord. Bacterial: also use Streptococcus pneumoniae, Influenza haemophilus type B and see Listeriose and Leptospirosis. Also treat for stones and crystals supplementally, or nephrosis non inflammatory kidney disease) - 1550, 274, 423, 636, 688, 880, 787, 727, 10, 20, 10000, 40, 73, 465, 3000 Nerve disorders and neuropathy - 10000, 3176, 2720, 2489, 2170, 2112, 1800, 1600, 1550, 880, 802, 787, 727, 660, 650, 625, 600, 440, 125, 95, 72, 20, 7. See also causative condition if known) - 2720, 2489, 2170, 2127, 2008, 1800, 1600, 1550, 802, 1500, 880, 832, 787, 776, 727, 690, 666, 650, 625, 600, 125, 95, 72, 20, 9 Orchitis secondary - 727, 787, 880, 10000 Ornithosis (Psittacosis or Parrot Fever; an infectious pneumonia transmitted by certain birds) - 233, 331, 332, 583, 859, 1217 Osteitis (bone inflammation) - 770 Osteoarthritis (use also Arthritis) - 962, 1500, 770 Osteoitis - 2. Also see Pseudomonas aeruginosa) - 727, 787, 880, 174, 482, 5311 Otitis medinum (middle ear swelling and or infection and fever. Use 880, 720, and 1550 for 10 min, others for 5 min) - 683, 688, 776, 766, 316, 784, 786, 125, 802, 72, 522, 440, 880, 720, 1550 Otosclerosis - 9. A disorder of the blood vessels caused by prolonged exposure to cold and characterized by skin lesions on the lower legs, hands, toes, feet, ears and face) - 20, 232, 622, 822, 4211, 2112 Pertussis (whooping cough) - 526, 765, 46, 284, 9101, 697, 906 Pertussis secondary - 880, 832, 802, 787, 776, 727, 1234, 7344 Pesticide detox (see also Liver and Kidney support, Circulatory and Lymph stasis freqs) 73, 26, 6, 1 Phaqocyross stimulation - 20, 125, 727, 787, 880 Pharyngitis (inflammation of pharynx, can cause chronic sore throat, halitosis, and pharyngeal ulcers.

Traduзгo de Maria lnкs Corrкa Nascimento antibiotics for persistent acne generic azihexal 500mg overnight delivery, Paulo Henrique Machado virus bulletin order azihexal with mastercard, Regina Machado Garcez antibiotic 400mg generic 500 mg azihexal, Rкgis Pizzato antibiotic 93 1174 azihexal 100mg with amex, Sandra Maria Mallmann da Rosa. Munchausen syndrome was included in the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases(3) and classified as intentional production or feigning of symptoms or disabilities either physical or psychological (factitious disorder). These patients frequently have a history of pathological lies about any aspect of their history or symptoms. Students or health professionals have been described, and there is a question of whether the increased incidence of Munchausen syndrome among this population. If, after extensive investigation complaints, no clear evidence exist that the individual is facing a true clinical condition, such patients may report other somatic and/or psychological problems and produce other nonspecific signs and/or symptoms. Individuals with this disorder can be submitted to multiple unnecessary procedures, including frequent and invasive surgery, without achieving an accurate diagnosis or successful therapy. In the hospital environment, many of these patients receive few or no visits during hospitalization. However, when these individuals with this disorder are informed that evidences show that symptoms are fraudulent and confronted, they often deny or leave the hospital without formal discharge. Commonly, later on, they end up seek another hospital or health service to be admitted. The individual can discretely use psychoactive substances to produce symptoms that suggest mental disorder. The combinations of psychoactive substances can produce extremely uncommon clinical pictures. Individuals with the chronic form of this disorder can have a "gridiron abdomen" caused by multiple surgical scars. In general, individuals with factitious disorder have difficulty to maintain their job, create family ties, and stable interpersonal relationships. The most common factitious disorders in medical and surgical clinic are shown in chart 4. The course of factitious disorders can be limited to one or more brief episodes, but generally, it is chronic. The disorder normally occurs in the first year of adulthood, and in most of cases after hospitalization of a general medical condition or other mental disorder. Suspicion for possible mental disorders or general medical conditions that represent a factitious Individuals with factitious disorder with predominant physical sign and symptoms can also be seen as substance abusers, particularly of analgesics and prescribed sedatives. In somatoform disorders, physical complaints that are not plentiful attributed to true general medical condition, but symptoms are not intentional produced. Simulation differs from factitious disorder in that motivation for production of symptoms in simulation is characterized by external incentive whereas in factitious disorder there are no external incentives. Individuals with simulation can seek hospitalization by fabricating symptoms with the aim of obtaining financial compensation, evading the police or simply "a place to spend the night". However, in most cases, symptoms can "disappear" when they are not useful anymore. Simulation differs from factitious disorder in terms of motivation for production of symptoms. In simulation the incentive is external while factitious disorders lack this incentive. In 2008 a systematic review on factitious disorders, which included 32 case reports and 13 case series, showed insufficient evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of any management technique for factitious disorders, including psychotherapy, drug treatment, behavioral therapy and multidisciplinary techniques. No comparative analyses have been carried out between different types of therapeutic approach, although a number of techniques have been described, such as psychodynamic and behavioral techniques. Some authors stated that involuntary psychiatric hospitalization has been used for patients who put himself/herself at risk and who cannot be treated on an outpatient unit. Such approach is need because most patients, although willing to assume the position of an ill person or put others in this position, do not recognize themselves as having mental disorder, they often do not adhere to treatment, and sometimes run away from their hometown to try to be admitted in another health service by reporting previous clinical features he/she had produced intentionally. Treatment of these patients is extremely difficult; presents very low rates of adherence, poor prognosis; and few cases have improvements.

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Por tipo de discapacidad bundespolizei virus buy azihexal 250mg lowest price, destaca preferentemente que los afectados tengan discapacidad intelectual (R = antibiotics for dogs gum infection purchase azihexal in united states online,337; sig 0 antibiotic resistance report 2015 generic azihexal 100mg free shipping,000) infection nose cheap 500 mg azihexal, entre los que reciben esta prestaciуn. Asimismo, implica necesidades de apoyo en todas las бreas analizadas y, preferentemente, para la comunicaciуn (R =,324; sig 0,000), el aprendizaje (R =,304; sig 0,000), el autocuidado (R =,284; sig 0,000) y la actividad educativa (R =,302; sig 0,000). Los que reciben esta prestaciуn hacen un uso preferencial de la atenciуn especializada de la sanidad pъblica (R =,1 sig 0,002). Grбfico 29: Distribuciуn de la muestra que recibe prestaciones econуmicas en funciуn de su cuantнa mensual Fuente: Elaboraciуn propia Existe, por otro lado, gran variabilidad de prestaciones, bonificaciones y ayudas econуmicas aparte de las consideradas, que son suministradas por administraciones autonуmicas y locales y que dependen de diversos factores, aparte del geogrбfico y administrativo: los recursos familiares, el tipo de enfermedad, etc. Individualmente los asociados solicitan: ayudas para taxi, adquisiciуn de ayudas tйcnicas, bonos para la piscina, etc. Cuestionario a asociaciones Ademбs de las prestaciones, ayudas tйcnicas e individuales a las que nos hemos referido en apartados anteriores, las personas con enfermedades raras suelen necesitar otra clase de apoyos personales, servicios y recursos para el desarrollo de su vida diaria, tanto en el domicilio como fuera de йste. Entre los recursos especializados de uso mбs comъn se encuentran, como es lуgico, los de Valoraciуn y Diagnуstico (Centros Base), que seсalan mбs de la mitad de los afectados, los de Tratamiento y rehabilitaciуn (un 30,76% de los afectados), los de Apoyo psicolуgico (un 22,33%), de Educaciуn Especial o Apoyo Educativo (19,52%) y los de Atenciуn Temprana (16,99%), estos dos ъltimos obviamente utilizados por aquellos afectados y afectadas que se encuentran en edad de ello. Por lo general, el uso de los recursos especializados de atenciуn a personas con discapacidad no es muy elevado, como tendremos ocasiуn de analizar mбs detenidamente, en relaciуn con el uso de los recursos y servicios no especializados. Todas estas ayudas, recursos, servicios y apoyos necesarios suelen suponer un elevado coste para el presupuesto familiar del afectado. Lo difнcil y costoso es dotar al afectado de la logнstica, de los medios y los conocimientos necesarios como para poder suplir al hospital en su propio domicilio. Cuestionario a asociaciones 89 5 Inclusiуn y participaciуn social De los datos obtenidos se desprende que las personas con enfermedad rara y sus familias tienen parcialmente mermadas las oportunidades de participaciуn en la comunidad, ya sea por las condiciones relacionadas directamente con la enfermedad, o por las limitaciones y situaciones de discriminaciуn que experimentan en su entorno. Sн es verdad que desde el aсo 99 que empezу este movimiento en Europa hasta ahora las cosas estбn mejorando. La concienciaciуn por parte de los Estados, la concienciaciуn social, la profesional, todo eso estб mejorando. Profesional de atenciуn sanitaria Las restricciones que afrontan en el бmbito social tienen mъltiples escenarios. En general, las cuestiones vinculadas a tratamientos, atenciуn sanitaria y cuidados personales ocupan un tiempo elevado que incide directamente en el acceso a la educaciуn y el empleo. La consecuencia mбs directa en estas condiciones es el aislamiento o al menos la reducciуn de oportunidades para desarrollar un rol social activo en la vida cotidiana. Y si bien existe un interйs en desarrollar una atenciуn sanitaria adecuada para los afectados, la participaciуn de los poderes pъblicos es menor para garantizar el acceso a los diferentes espacios de ciudadanнa (empleo, educaciуn, etc. Luego nos encontramos con un paciente que da igual que tenga una enfermedad mбs o menos rara, que tiene unos problemas sociales aсadidos, de escolarizaciуn, de asistencia al centro. Eso lo tenemos que resolver independientemente, o por lo menos intentar resolverlo. Profesional del бmbito de lo social A nivel laboral, a nivel de su vecino, entonces es decir, tengo tal enfermedad, que normalmente son nombres rarнsimos, y ese aislamiento y la falta de sensibilizaciуn por parte de la sociedad en general. Responsable de polнticas sociosanitarias autonуmicas No me hables de Navidad que es horroroso; yo no salgo, me quedo aquн sola, es deprimente. Entrevista a afectada por enfermedad rara Mi madre estб acostumbrada al dolor, vive con el dolor. Cuidador principal de adulto con enfermedad rara Ademбs de las limitaciones personales inherentes a la enfermedad, el entorno social no estб adaptado, presenta barreras a la participaciуn social plena y con frecuencia se caracteriza por el desconocimiento y la incomprensiуn. Generales Los recursos generales de mayor frecuencia de uso son, debido a sus necesidades especнficas, los Centros de Salud (75,14%). Tambiйn destaca el uso de los medios de transporte pъblicos (48,60%), los servicios sociales (46,21%) y los recursos educativos (44,38%). Profesional del бmbito de lo social Segъn muestran los datos de EurodisCare 3, mбs de la mitad de la poblaciуn entrevistada en Espaсa se muestra insatisfecha con la disponibilidad de Servicios Sociales, en consonancia con la media de los paнses estudiados. Los mбs frecuentes son los de valoraciуn y diagnуstico (en un 52,74% de los casos), los de rehabilitaciуn (un 30,76%) y los de apoyo psicolуgico (22,33%), asн como los mбs especнficos por edades de Atenciуn temprana (16,99%) y educaciуn especial o apoyo educativo (19,52%). Grбfico 32: Distribuciуn de la muestra segъn uso de recursos y servicios especializados de atenciуn a personas con discapacidad Fuente: Elaboraciуn propia Al respecto, el 83,80% de los encuestados pertenece al menos a una asociaciуn de discapacidad, ya sea como socio (en un 70,58% de los casos) o ъnicamente como usuario (en un 13,22%). Entre las asociaciones seсaladas, la mayorнa son de personas con enfermedades raras (un 82,85%), mientras que otras son de personas con discapacidad (un 1 7,15%).

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Second antibiotics eczema purchase azihexal overnight, this type of valuable habitat may select for philopatry and helping because the colony can be inherited by offspring antibiotics for acne nz buy azihexal toronto, and some helpers may have a chance to replace breeders bacteria shapes purchase azihexal on line amex. Third antibiotics hidradenitis suppurativa azihexal 500mg low price, living in a confined habitat helps keep relatives in physical proximity and thereby creates opportunities for kin-selected reproductive altruism. Finally, because juveniles in such habitats are frequently self-sufficient with regard to food, they can devote themselves more directly, and at a younger age, to helping raise younger siblings. High risks of mortality during the period of brood rearing may also promote eusociality, because sociality provides life insurance: if a cooperative breeder or a helper dies early, its investment is not lost, because other group members will finish rearing related brood. In contrast, a solitary breeder that dies before having raised its brood will have zero fitness. Hence, long development time and high mortality risk should favor helping and eusociality. These conditions occur in many species of Hymenoptera, such as ants, wasps, and bees, which have extended parental care and search for food outside nests. The Role of the Family Structure the evolution of eusociality depends on a combination of ecological, genetic, social, and life history factors that jointly determine whether the best option for a young One factor that played a crucial role in facilitating the evolution of reproductive altruism is the type of family structure. Mother-daughter associations not only provide 700 Evolution of Behavior, Society, and Humans polistes wasps, and sweat bees, there is little morphological difference between queens and workers; the specialization is mostly behavioral. By contrast, many ants and termites are characterized by striking differences between queens and workers, with the latter sometimes having completely lost their ovaries and developed morphologies adapted for special tasks. A broad comparison among social insects reveals an association between the queen/worker dimorphism and colony size. Morphological differences between queens and workers are generally absent or small in species forming small colonies, whereas the differences are well marked in species forming large colonies. Such an association can be explained by a relationship between colony size and the probability of workers to become replacement reproductives. This probability drastically decreases in larger colonies, with the effect that there is lower selection to retain reproductive ability. The only vertebrate species in which morphological castes have evolved is the naked mole rat. In this species, the lumbar vertebrae of the breeding female elongate after the onset of reproduction. Of all the vertebrate species, the naked mole rat forms the largest societies, with up to 300 individuals. Forty years ago, there was considerable discussion about whether eusociality evolved within groups composed of a mother and her offspring, or within groups composed of related individuals of the same generation, such as sisters. The asymmetry in relatedness occurring in mother-daughter associations should favor the evolution of eusociality. Therefore, a pronounced reproductive division of labor and monopolization of reproduction by mothers is expected to evolve and be stable in mother-daughter associations. Hughes and colleagues showed that monoandry (a queen mating with a single male) was ancestral on each of the occasions when eusociality evolved and that multiple mating evolved only after workers had lost reproductive totipotency. In fact, the breeding system of most eusocial species is conducive to lifetime monogamy. In ants, bees, and wasps, for example, the queens mate only during the mating flight, hence ensuring high relatedness of their offspring throughout their life. Similarly, termite colonies are typically initiated by a royal couple, which jointly produce all the colony offspring. Thus, the breeding system of species that became permanently eusocial was conducive to the formation of simple families in which offspring were highly related and thus more likely to forgo reproduction if this increased colony survival and productivity. Caste Differentiation Division of labor among workers plays a major role in the great ecological success of eusocial species. Analogously to somatic tissues in a multicellular organism, workers can specialize in various tasks (division of labor). Moreover, tasks can be divided in sequential actions performed by more than one individual (task partitioning). Hence, work can be performed collectively, with concurrent operations and synergistic interactions generating large benefits to the whole colony. In a feedback loop, the benefits of collective work further promote the evolution of reproductive altruism and contribute to stabilize eusociality.

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